Chinese Entrepreneur Orientation and Relationships in Yangtze Delta Region

Page Contents >
  • Programme
  • Conference topics and abstracts
  • Invitation
  • List of delegates
  • Background information about the project and conference
  • Final report

Programme

25 March  (Wednesday)

Morning sessions Chair: Professor Xuewei Zhai
8:30 - 9:00    Registration
9:00 - 9:30    Opening speeches by Professor Xian Zhou,  Professor Shuming Zhao,  Professor Xiaohong Zhou
9:30 -10:45   Dr. Xiangqun Chang, Introduction to the Research Projects and the Conference, 'Lishang-wanglai Model' in Chinese Entrepreneur Orientation and Relationships in Yangtze Delta Region
10:45 -11:00    Tea Break
11:00 -12:20    Comments and Discussions (Discussant: Professor Ke Fan)
12:30 - 1:20     Lunch

Afternoon sessions Chair: Professor Ke Fan
1:30 - 2:15 Professor Letian Zhang: Institution, Guanxi and Development of TVEs: A Case Study of the Salt Trade Officer in Northern Zhejiang
2:15 - 3:15 Comments and Discussions (Discussant: Dr. Xiangqun Chang)
3:15 - 3:30 Tea Break
3:30 - 4:15 Dr. Haiming Hui: A Case Study of Jiang Renjie - the Corrupt Billionaire Official in the South Jiangsu Model
4:15 - 5:15 Comments and Discussants (Discussant: Dr Linyan Li)
5:15 - 5:30 Photography
5:30 Dinner

26 March (Thursday)

Morning session Chair: Professor Xiaohong Zhou
9:00 - 9:45 Professor Chenggang Xu: Chenggang Xu: What Makes Privatization Work? The Case of China
9:45 - 10:40 Comments and Discussions (Discussant: Professor Hejian Wang)
10:40-10:50 Tea Break
10:50-11:35 Dr Derui Yang: A Comparative Study of the Taiwanese Entrepreneurs in China and India
11:35-12:20 Comments and Discussions (Discussant: Associate Researcher Yi Shen)
12:30 -1:20 Lunch

Afternoon Session Chair: Professor Chenggang Xu
1:30 - 2:15 Professor Xuewei Zhai: The Transformation from Social Capital to Relationships: A Case Study of the Development of Chinese SMEs
2:15 - 3:15 Comments and Discussions (Discussant: Professor Nongjian Zou)
3:15 - 3:30 Tea Break
3:30 - 5:00 Workshop 'Implications and Further Researches on Entrepreneur Relationships'
5:00 - 5:30 Closing speech: Professor Stephan Feuchtwang
5:30 Dinner

Conference topics and abstracts

^

Xiangqun Chang, (1) 'Introduction to the Research Projects and the Conference (see: Background information about the project and conference); (2) "'Lishang-wanglai' model in Chinese Entrepreneur Orientation and Relationships in Yangtze Delta Region". The major finding from many interviews in different places is that entrepreneurs' success is based on their ability to continuously make business relationships with many different parties.

Over the past thirty year period of social reform the ways of making relationships, and the kinds of relationships needed, have changed, but entrepreneurs adapted themselves well to help their firms to grow in differing situations. For many entrepreneurs firm growth can be seen as a product of their skill in making relationships. In their own words, "Doing business is making relationships (zuo shengyi shi zuo guanxi)", "Relationships are really productivity (guanxi jiushi shengchanli)".

The difference between this study and previous studies on guanxi (relationships) is that the entrepreneurs themselves broke down relationships (guanxi) into different types, and while making guanxi they also engaged with different principles, in particular chengxin (trust), and yuanfen or yunqi (luck), which are the most frequently mentioned principles of this kind.

This is true uniformly in rural areas and cities, and in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai, the Yangtze Delta Region. This process can be discovered through interviews concerning the 'Lishang-wanglai' model, and the data can also be described and analysed using the 'Lishang-wanglai' model (see enclosed appendix of the final report. To see this please click HERE).

Chenggang Xu, 'What Makes Privatization Work? The Case of China' [Using a unique hand-collected nationwide survey, this paper studies China's privatization, by far the largest one in human history. We find that privatization in China has improved performance, but only for firms brought out by managers (MBOs). Consistent with improved performance, MBO firms are less likely to be influenced by the state in their daily operation and are more likely to take various restructuring measures. We also find that city governments with stronger fiscal disciplines and less political burden in disposing of laid-off workers tend to use the MBO method to privatize. ] PPT

Xuewei Zhai, 'The Transformation from Social Capital to "Relationships": A Case Study of the Development of Chinese SMEs' [The increasing popularity of studies of social networks and social capital among Chinese students of sociology has expanded into the traditional field of guanxi studies, with consequent interest in how they fit into guanxi studies in terms of both context and scope. This case study of Chinese SMEs points out the difference in orientation between the concepts of guanxi and social capital. Chinese guanxi centres upon protection, operation of power and expediency between agency and structure, whereas social capital is about information, trust and cooperation, as well as the investment and return of resources. The confusion of these two concepts can lead to many important guanxi issues being overlooked. [there is a simplified version in English],

Haiming Hui, 'A Case Study of Jiang Renjie - the Corrupt Billionaire Official in the South Jiangsu Model'. Useful information about value orientation and interaction between local government officials and entrepreneurs in the South Jiangsu Model is contained in this study. In Imperial China, Jiang would have been disqualified from an official appointment due to the restriction of residency and the competitive state examinations. In contrast to this he was offered a chance by TVEs to engage in extortionate rent-seeking. A corrupt billionaire official was thus born out of booming real estate and land values.

As widely acknowledged, power corrupts unless operated transparently. The case of Jiang can be explained by recourse to a complex model centred upon renqing (favouritism), mianzi (face) and guanxi, which can be further contextualised in the concepts of 'interest' and 'politics' as in the South Jiangsu Model. Without this contextualisation, the interface between individual life and social history cannot be clarified. This is what Freedman has emphasised - that students of Chinese anthropology should seek to examine society as an entirety.

Letian Zhang, 'Institution, Guanxi and Development of TVEs: A Case Study in the Yanguan County, Northern Zhejiang' [Based on the rural industry development in Northern Zhejiang, this paper analyzes how guanxi (the relationship) influences industry development in different rural industry systems. The author argues that during the period of rural industry development, guanxi is constrained by institutional environment. This study provides a particular case for understanding the concept guanxi. ]

Derui Yang, 'Taiwanese Entrepreneurs in India' [It shows how the relationship between entrepreneurs and government in India differs from that obtaining in mainland China, but is similar to that in Taiwan. Conditions of political ideology, such as multi-party competition, universal suffrage, and frequent changes of regime, are not conducive to the growth of cultural relations. Entrepreneurs had to pay heavy fees to government in a style akin to paying protection money to gangsters. Furthermore, relationships between individuals in India are different from those in both mainland China and Taiwan in many ways. Taiwanese find it very difficult to mix into Indian culture: relationships between colleagues at work are often determined by rank, class, caste, and in addition female relationships at work are determined by family relations. Chinese-style guanxi relationships have no place to grow in such a cultural environment.]
 

Invitation

Dear delegates,                                                           

The International Conference of the 'Advanced Study on China' (ICASC) is the final conference of the project 'Chinese Entrepreneur Orientation and Relationships in Yangtze Delta Region'. It is small in size but high in standard. The speakers have themselves conducted fieldwork for the joint projects between LSE and Nanjing University, whereas all the delegates are discussants or commentators. See details below for generation information:

Date: 25th - 26th March, 2009
Venue: 4th Floor, Yifu Building of Management Science, 22 Hankou Road, Gulou District, Nanjing, China
Organisers:The China Studies, School of Social and Behavioural Sciences (formerly Department of Sociology), Nanjing University, China Journal of China in Comparative Perspective (JCCP), China in Comparative Perspective Network (CCPN), LSE, UK
Sponsors: Research Project Development Department (RPDD), London School of Economics and Political Sciences, UK School of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Nanjing University, China
Convenors:Dr. Xiangqun Chang (x.chang@lse.ac.uk; +442080994815)
Professor Xuewei Zai (njxw_zhai@163.com; +8613809036237)

This conference is by invitation only. Attached to this letter are the programme, titles and abstracts, list of delegates and related background information about the project and conference.

Thank you for your participation and we look forward to seeing you in Nanjing!

Sincerely yours,

Stephan Feuchtwang                                        Xiaohong Zhou
Professor of Anthropology                                Professor of Social Psychology
Director of China Programme, LSE                Dean of the SSBS, Nanjing University
Editor-in-Chief of JCCP                                     Editor-in-chief of China Studies

List of delegates

^

Outside Naning (5):

  • Professor Stephan Feuchtwang, Director of China in Comparative Perspective Programme, LSE
  • Dr. Xiangqun Chang, Coordinator of China in Comparative Perspective Network, LSE
  • Professor Chenggang Xu, Faculty of Finance and Economics, University of Hong Kong
  • Professor Letian Zhang, Deputy Director of School of Socila Policy and Development, Fudan University
  • Dr. Haiming Hui, Department of Sociology, Suzhou University

Nanjing city (6):

  • Professor Nongjian Zou, Director of Department of Social Science Management, Nanjing Normal University
  • Yi Shen, Associate Research Fellow, Institute of Sociology, Jiangsu Academy of Social Sciences
  • Dr Linyan Li, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Southeast University
  • Jie Zhang, Lecturer, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
  • Yong Qu, Lecturer, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University
  • Tianshan Xue, Lecturer, Jinlian College, Nanjing Normal University

Nanjing university (12):

  • Professor Xian Zhou, Associate Vice-President of Nanjing University, Dean of Institute of Advanced Studies in Humanities & Social Sciences
  • Professor Shuming Zhao, Dean of International Business School
  • Professor Xiaohong Zhou, Dean of School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Professor Xuewei Zhai, Head of Department of Social Psychology, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Professor Ke Fan, Head of Social Anthropology, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Professor Hejian Wang, Deputy Director of Centre for Chinese Social and Cultural Studies, Department of Sociology, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Dr Derui Yang, Associate Professor, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Aihua Zhang, PhD Candidate, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Mengting Hou, MA Student, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Chun Zhou, MA Student, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Xuefang Hu, MA Student, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences
  • Qian Mei, MA Student, School of Social & Behavioural Sciences

Delegates from government and enterprise (6)

  • Hui Pang, Vice Chairman, Jiangsu Federation of Industry & Commerce, Jiangsu Chamber of Commerce
  • Yin Zijun, Director of Organizations and Propaganda, State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, Nanjing City People's Government
  • Wang Yigang, President of Guoquan Investment and Development Ltd, Daji Estate Management Group
  • Jianwei Wu, General Manager of Ivy Capital Investment Co., Ltd Deputy Director, Jiangsu Datong Investment Wuwen Co. Ltd.
  • Liu Jian, Chairman, General Manager, Jiangsu Minfeng Steel Ltd, Nanjing Fushen Estate Development Co., Ltd.
  • Chan Han, Chairman, Nanjing Dehong Investment Management Ltd., Nanjing Dewen Estate Development Co., Ltd.

Background information about the project and conference

^

Differentiating 'Advanced Studies on China' from 'China Studies'
Contextualising the Research and Its Methodology for
the Inaugural International Conference of the 'Advanced Study on China' (ICASC)

Xiangqun Chang

'Advanced Studies on China' as a concept by definition is closely related to 'China Studies' in its broader sense. The title of our conference has strongly suggested the very nature of 'social scientific advanced study' in our research, in and of which was born the conference. We will continue to apply this kind of approach in our future collaborative research. The results will be reported in the 2nd, 3rd or more International Conference of the Advanced Study on China (ICASC).

'Chinese entrepreneur orientations and relationships in Yangtze Delta Region' was as a pilot project funded by the LSE in its Seed Research Fund in support of the School's Asia Strategy which 'encourages collaborative research' in order to 'create intellectual connections that may lead to longer-term, larger-scale, funded work'. Open as it is, the research varies considerably as far as scope and depth are concerned.

As the start of a new field, our exploration approximates Deng Xiaoping's famous slogan of 'crossing the river by feeling the stones', or the academic freedom and creativity as enshrined in the Princetonian creation of an Institute of Advanced Studies. This article shall contextualise the inaugural conference to be held in Nanjing, so as to ensure a full appreciation of the fruitfulness of this project. Equally it provides a brief discussion on the methodology of 'the advanced study of China', which again resides within the innovative nature of this conference.

Several British academic terms on China studies will be discussed in the first section, to be followed by the conceptualisations popular among the advanced studies and in relations with China internationally. Finally, the 'advanced study on China' at the China in Comparative Perspective Network (CCPN), LSE shall be differentially defined in relation to the project on 'Chinese entrepreneur orientations and relationships in Yangtze Delta Region'.

I. Distinguishes between Sinology, Chinese studies, China studies as area studies, China researches as social scientific studies or China related studies in the UK

II. General Advanced Studies and the related studies of China

III. Characterises 'Advanced Study on China' at the CCPN, LSE

        1. Comparative
        2. Interdisciplinary
        3. Three-dimensional

  • academic
  • academic/government
  • academic/business

Please click HERE to download English version.

Please click here to download Chinese version.

Final report

This report consists of six parts. They are:
        1. Study period and research team
        2. Innovative methodology of collaboration in China Studies
        3. Research work and results
        4. Project related activities
        5. Funding applications
        6. Future plan

Click HERE to download the full report (English only).

 

长江三角洲地区华人企业家的关系研究

内容 >
  • 程序
  • 会议议题和择要
  • 邀请
  • 代表名单
  • 项目和会议的背景资料
  • 最后报告

程序

3月25日  (星期三)

上午部分主席: Xuewei Zhai 教授
8:30 - 9:00    注册
9:00 - 9:30    Xian Zhou 教授, Shuming Zhao 教授和周晓虹教授的开幕演说
9:30 -10:45   常向群博士对研究项目和会议的介绍, '长江三角洲地区的中国企业家倾向和关系中的[礼尚往来模式]
10:45 -11:00 茶点
11:00 -12:20 评论与讨论 (讨论者: Ke Fan 教授)
12:30 - 1:20  午饭

下午部分主席: Ke Fan 教授
1:30 - 2:15 张乐天教授: 机构,关系和TVEs的发展: 北浙江盐贸易官员的一个个案研究 A
2:15 - 3:15 评论与讨论 (讨论者: 常向群博士)
3:15 - 3:30 茶点
3:30 - 4:15 Haiming Hui 博士: Jiang Renjie 的一个个案研究 - 南江苏模式中的腐败亿万富翁官员
4:15 - 5:15 评论与讨论 (讨论者: Linyan Li 教授)
5:15 - 5:30 合照
5:30  晚饭

3月26日 (星期四)

上午部分主席: 周晓虹教授
9:00 - 9:45 Chenggang Xu 教授: Chenggang Xu: 什么使私有化行得通? 中国的案例
9:45 - 10:40 评论与讨论 (讨论者: Hejian Wang 教授)
10:40-10:50 茶点
10:50-11:35 Derui Yang博士: 对中国和印度的台湾企业家的比较研究
11:35-12:20 评论与讨论 (讨论者: Yi Shen 副研究员)
12:30 -1:20 午饭

下午部分主席: Chenggang Xu 教授
1:30 - 2:15 Xuewei Zhai 教授: 将社会资本转化为关系: 中国SMEs发展的一个个案研究
2:15 - 3:15 评论与讨论 (讨论者: Nongjian Zou 教授)
3:15 - 3:30 茶点
3:30 - 5:00 研习会 '企业家的关系的含义和进一步的研究
5:00 - 5:30 闭幕演说: 王斯福教授
5:30  晚饭

 会议议题和择要

^

常向群, (1)'对研究计划及会议的介绍 (看: 项目及会议的背景资料); (2) "长江三角洲地区的中国企业家倾向和关系中的[礼尚往来模式]。从不同地方的很多访问中得到的主要发现是企业家的成功是建立在他们不断地和很多不同的人建立商业关系的能力。

经过过去三十年间的社会改革, 建立关系的方式及所需要关系的种类已经改变, 但企业家很会适应自己去帮助他们的企业在不同的情况下成长。对很多企业家来说, 企业成长可以被视为他们建立关系的技巧的一个成果。用他们的话来说, "做生意是做关系", "关系就是生产力"。

这项研究与以往有关关系的研究的不同之处在于企业家本身将关系分为不同的类型,而在建立关系的同时他们还有不同的原则,特别是诚信以及缘分和运气,这是最经常被提到的原则。

这在农村地区和城市, 及在江苏, 浙江和上海的长江下游]地区是一律地是真的。这个过程可以通过与“礼尚往来”模式访谈被发现,而数据也可以通过'礼尚往来'模式被描述和分析(见最后报告的附录- 要看这个请点击这里)。

Chenggang Xu, '什么使私有化行得通? 中国的案例' [根据一个独特的人手收集的全国性调查, 这篇文章对中国私有化的研究到目前是人类历史上最大的。我们发现私有化在中国已经改善了表现,但只限于那些由经理买下的公司(管理层收购)。符合更佳的表现,通过管理层收购的企业在其日常运作上不太可能受政府影响,而更有可能采取各种重组措施。我们还发现具有更强的财政纪律并在处置下岗工人方面有较少政治包袱的市政府倾向于使用管理层收购的方法私有化。PPT

Xuewei Zhai, ‘从社会资本到”关系"的转变: 一个中国中小企业发展的个案研究 [社会学的中国学生对社交网络和社会资本的研究越来越普遍并已经扩展到传统的关系研究领域,而随之而来的兴趣在他们如何在背景和范围上融入关系研究。这个中国中小企业的个案研究指出关系和社会资本的概念在定位上的差异。中国关系以保护,权力的运作及机构与结构之间的权宜之计为中心,而社会资本则是有关信息,信任与合作,以及资源的投资和回报。这两个概念的混淆会导致许多重要的关系问题被忽视。

Haiming Hui, '一个Jiang Renjie的个案研究 - 南江苏模式中的腐败亿万富翁官员':关于价值取向和地方政府官员与苏南模式的企业家之间的互动的有用信息都包含在这项研究中。在帝制中国,江将会由于居住的限制和竞争激烈的国家考试而被取消正式任命的资格。与此相反,他被乡镇提供了很多追求租金的机会。一个腐败的亿万富翁官员就这样在蓬勃发展的房地产和土地价值中诞生了。

普遍认为除非透明地操作, 权力会使人腐化。江的情况可以通过以人情, 面子和关系为中心的复杂模式,更可以进一步以苏南模式的“利益”和“政治”的概念为背景进行阐释。如果没有这个背景化,个人生活与社会历史之间的交接点便无法被澄清。这就是Freedman所强调的 - 中国人类学的学生应该寻求将社会作为一个整体去研究。

张乐天, '机构,关系和乡镇企业的发展:以浙北盐官县为例”' [这篇文章根据北浙江的农村产业发展分析了关系在不同的农村工业系统是如何影响行业的发展。作者认为在农村产业发展的时期,关系是受到制度环境的制约。这个研究为理解关系的概念提供了一个具体案例。]

Derui Yang, 印度的台湾企业家"[它显示在印度的企业家和政府之间的关系如何与在中国大陆的不同,但是与在台湾的类似。政治思想的条件,像多党竞争,普选和政权的频繁更替是不利于文化关系的发展。企业家不得不像支付保护费给黑帮那样支付沉重的费用给政府。此外,在印度的个人之间的关系与中国大陆和台湾的在很多方面都不同。台湾人觉得很难融入印度文化:在工作中与同事之间的关系往往是由等级,阶级,种姓所决定,而另外在工作中的男女关系是由家庭关系所决定的。中国式的关系都在这样的文化环境中没有成长的空间。]
 

邀请

致各位代表                                                         

'中国高等研究' (ICASC)国际会议是'长江三角洲地区的中国企业家倾向和关系'项目的最后会议. 它的规模小但标准高。讲者在伦敦经济学院和南京大学之间的联合项目中进行了田野调查, 而所有参加者都是讨论员或评论员。见下面的详细资料:

日期: 2009 年3月25-26日
地点:  中国南京市鼓楼区汉口路22号管理科学逸夫楼4楼
组织者:The China Studies, 中国南京大学社会及行为科学学院 (前社会学系), 中国比较研究期刊 (JCCP), 英国伦敦政经学院中国比较研究学会 (CCPN)
赞助者: 英国伦敦政经学院研究项目发展部门(RPDD), 中国南京大学社会及行为科学学院
召集人:常向群博士 (x.chang@lse.ac.uk; +442080994815)
Xuewei Zai 教授  (njxw_zhai@163.com; +8613809036237)

这个会议只限于被邀请的人士。 这封信附上程序,题目和提要,代表名单及与项目和会议相关的背景资料

谢谢你们的参与及期待在南京见到你们!

谨此,

王斯福                                                             周晓虹
人类学教授                                                      社会心理学教授
伦敦政经学院中国研究计划主任                     南京大学社会及行为科学学院院长
JCCP 主编                                                      China Studies 主编

 代表名单

^

南京以外 (5):

  • 王斯福 教授 , 伦敦政经学院中国研究计划主任
  • 常向群博士, 伦敦政经学院中国比较研究学会召集人
  • Chenggang Xu 教授, 香港大学金融及经济学院
  • 张乐天 教授, 复旦大学社会政策及发展学院副院长
  • Haiming Hui 博士, 苏州大学社会学系

南京市 (6):

  • Nongjian Zou 教授, 南京师范大学社会科学管理系主任
  • Yi Shen, 江苏社会科学院社会学研究所副研究员
  • Linyan Li 博士, 东南大学人文及社会科学院
  • Jie Zhang 讲师, 南京航空航天大学人文及社会科学院
  • Yong Qu 讲师, 南京农业大学人文及社会科学院
  • Tianshan Xue 讲师,  南京师范大学Jinlian学院

南京大学 (12):

  • Xian Zhou教授, 南京大学协理副校长,人文与社会科学高等研究学院院长
  • Shuming Zhao 教授, 国际商学院院长
  • 周晓虹教授, 社会及行为科学学院院长
  • Xuewei Zhai 教授, 社会及行为科学学院社会心理系系主任
  • Ke Fan 教授,  社会及行为科学学院社会人类学系系主任
  • Hejian Wang 教授, 社会及行为科学学院社会学系中国社会及文化研究中心副主任
  • Derui Yang 教授, 社会及行为科学学院副教授
  • Aihua Zhang, 社会及行为科学学院博士候选人
  • Mengting Hou, 社会及行为科学学院硕士生
  • Chun Zhou, 社会及行为科学学院硕士生
  • Xuefang Hu, 社会及行为科学学院硕士生
  • Qian Mei, 社会及行为科学学院硕士生

政府和企业的代表 (6)

  • Hui Pang, 江苏工商联盟, 江苏商会副主席
  • Yin Zijun, 南京市人民政府国有资产管理及行政委员会组织及宣传主任
  • Wang Yigang, 国权投资发展有限公司,大蓟物业管理集团总裁
  • Jianwei Wu, 常春藤资本投资有限公司总经理 ,江苏大通投资Wuwen有限公司副主任
  • Liu Jian, 江苏民丰钢铁有限公司, 南京富绅房地产开发有限公司董事长,总经理,
  • Chan Han, 南京德宏投资管理有限公司,南京德文房地产开发有限公司董事长

 项目和会议的背景资料

^

 区分'中国高等研究'与'中国研究’
脉络化首届中国高等研究‘国际会议(ICASC)的研究及其方法论
 

常向群

作为一个概念的'中国的高等研究'在定义上与广义的'中国研究'有密切的关系。我们会议的主题强烈建议了在我们的研究中的“社会科学的先进研究”性质,由此产生了这次会议。我们将继续将这种方法应用在我们未来的合作研究中。 结果将会在第二, 第三或第四届中国高等研究'国际会议(ICASC)中被报告。

 “长江三角洲地区的中国企业家倾向和关系”的研究是由LSE种子研究基金资助以支持学校的亚洲战略去“鼓励合作研究'以'打造可能导致更长期和大规模受资助工作的学术连结“的试点项目。虽然研究是开放的,研究在范围和深度上的差异都很大。

作为一个新领域的开始,我们的探索接近邓小平著名的“摸着石头过河”的口号,或者是体现在普林斯顿创造的高级研究所中的学术自由和创造力。本文会将在南京举行的成立大会背景化,以确保对这个项目的成果的一个全面理解。 同样也它提供了一个关于“中国高等研究”的方法论的简要讨论,而这又与本会议的创新性配合。

关于中国研究的几个英国学术条款将在第一节被讨论,随后是在高等研究中流行并与中国国际上有关系的概念化。最后,LSE中国比较研究网(CCPN)的'中国高等研究'将会被与“长三角地区中国企业家的取向和关系”项目分别地定义。

I. 区分在英国的汉学,中国研究,作为区域研究的中国研究,作为社会科学研究的中国研究或与中国有关的研究

II. 一般高等研究和中国的相关研究

III. 特征化在CCPN 和 LSE的'中国高等研究'

        1. 比较性
        2. 跨学科
        3. 三度空间

  • 学术
  • 学术/ 政府
  • 学术/ 商业

请点击这里下载英文版

 

 最后报告

这个报告包括六个部分。它们是:
        1. 研究期间和研究队伍 
        2. 中国研究合作的创造性方法论 
        3. 研究工作和结果 
        4. 项目相关活动 
        5. 基金申请 
        6. 未来计划

点击这里下载整个报告 (只有英文).

 

(韩志豪译)

 

 

 

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